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Bypassing Censorship

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Table of Contents
Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
More information in more places than ever imagined…………………………………………………………………..1
Not everyone wants to let the whole world in……………………………………………………………………………..1
Who is filtering or blocking the Internet?……………………………………………………………………………………2
Filtering leads to monitoring
……………………………………………………………………………………………………..2
When is it censorship?……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..2
Who exactly is blocking my access to the Internet?…………………………………………………………………….3
What methods exist to bypass filtering?……………………………………………………………………………………..3
What are the risks of using circumvention tools?…………………………………………………………………………3
About This Manual……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4
What is Sesawe?……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4
Authors
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4
1. Register………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4
2. Contribute!………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5
3. Chat……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………5
4. Mailing List………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..5
.
Bypassing Internet Filtering………………………………………………………………………………………………………………6
Circumvention Providers………………………………………………………………………………………………………….6
Circumvention Users………………………………………………………………………………………………………………6
Am I Being Blocked or Filtered?………………………………………………………………………………………………………..7
Detection and Anonymity…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..8
An important warning………………………………………………………………………………………………………………8
How the Internet Works…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..10
Connecting to the Internet………………………………………………………………………………………………………10
.
Visiting a Web site…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………10
Why This Matters………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….12
Who Controls the Net?…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….13
Government involvement……………………………………………………………………………………………………….13
.
Why This Matters………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….13
Filtering Techniques……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….14
URL Filtering………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..14
DNS Filtering………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..14
IP Filtering……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………15
Port blocking…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………15
Why This Matters………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….16
Simple Tricks
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..17
Using third-party sites…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….17
Cached Pages
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….17
RSS Aggregators……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..17
Translators………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………18
Low-Bandwidth Filters
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….19
Using Alternative Domain Servers or Names
…………………………………………………………………………….19
Alternate Domain Names………………………………………………………………………………………………….20
Alternative DNS Servers…………………………………………………………………………………………………..20
Using e-mail services……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..20
Accessing web pages through e-mail………………………………………………………………………………….20
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Table of Contents
Simple Tricks
Using Web mail to share documents…………………………………………………………………………………..20
Advantages and Risks……………………………………………………………………………………………………………20
What is a Web Proxy?……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..22
Advantages and Risks…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….23
Using PHProxy………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..24
Where can I access PHProxy?…………………………………………………………………………………………………24
How does it work?…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………24
Advanced options
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….25
Using psiphon………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….27
Connecting to a psiphon Proxy………………………………………………………………………………………………..27
Adding an SSL Exception
……………………………………………………………………………………………………….27
If you’re concerned about privacy………………………………………………………………………………………28
Logging in to the Proxy………………………………………………………………………………………………………….29
Browsing via the Proxy
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..29
Using psiphon 2……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….31
How to get a psiphon2 account…………………………………………………………………………………………………………32
Use an invitation link to register………………………………………………………………………………………………32
Accept the SSL error message
……………………………………………………………………………………………32
SSL-Error with Internet Explorer 6………………………………………………………………………………32
SSL-Error with Internet Explorer 7………………………………………………………………………………32
SSL-Error with Firefox 3…………………………………………………………………………………………….33
Create your own account………………………………………………………………………………………………………..35
Use the psiphon2 node……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..37
Invite others………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….38
Invite a user…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….38
Send invitations……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….39
Report a blocked website………………………………………………………………………………………………………..40
Use Psimail…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..41
Send messages…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………41
Read Messages………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..42
More resources………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………43
Web Proxy Risks……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..44
Lack of Privacy……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..44
Advertising, viruses and malware…………………………………………………………………………………………….44
Cookies and scripts………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..45
The proxy operator can see everything……………………………………………………………………………………..45
Advanced Background…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….46
Ports and Protocols………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..46
The layered networking model…………………………………………………………………………………………..46
Advanced Filtering Techniques……………………………………………………………………………………………….47
TCP/IP Header Filtering
……………………………………………………………………………………………………47
Port………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..48
Blocking………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….47
TCP/IP Content Filtering
…………………………………………………………………………………………………..48
DNS Tampering………………………………………………………………………………………………………………49
HTTP Proxy Filtering
……………………………………………………………………………………………………….49
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Table of Contents
Advanced Background
Hybrid TCP/IP and HTTP Proxy……………………………………………………………………………………….49
Denial of Service……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..49
Domain Deregistration……………………………………………………………………………………………………..50
Server Takedown
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..50
Surveillance…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….50
Cryptography…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….50
Social Techniques
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….51
What Is A HTTP Proxy?………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….52
Good proxies and bad proxies
………………………………………………………………………………………………….52
Proxies that restrict access ………………………………………………………………………………………………..52
Proxies for circumvention ………………………………………………………………………………………………..52
Where to find an application proxy………………………………………………………………………………………….52
HTTP Proxy settings………………………………………………………………………………………………………………52
Microsoft Internet Explorer……………………………………………………………………………………………….56
Pidgin Instant Messaging Client…………………………………………………………………………………..58
When you’re done with the proxy………………………………………………………………………………………60
Installing SwitchProxy
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..61
Using Switch Proxy………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….64
SwitchProxy configuration……………………………………………………………………………………………………..64
Adding a Basic Proxy…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….65
Standard Proxy Settings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………66
Adding a list of proxies for automated switching……………………………………………………………………….67
Using SwitchProxy………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..69
Disadvantages and Risks
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………70
Tor – The Onion Router…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..71
What do I need to use the Tor network?……………………………………………………………………………………71
With what software is Tor compatible?…………………………………………………………………………………….71
Advantages and Risks…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….72
Using Tor Browser Bundle
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….73
Downloading Tor Browser Bundle…………………………………………………………………………………………..73
Installing from a single file………………………………………………………………………………………………73
Installing from split files………………………………………………………………………………………………….74
Using Tor Browser
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………76
Browsing the Web using Tor Browser……………………………………………………………………………………..77
.
If this does not work………………………………………………………………………………………………………………77
Alternatives…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..78
Using Tor IM Browser Bundle…………………………………………………………………………………………………………79
Download Tor IM Browser Bundle………………………………………………………………………………………….79
Auto-extract the archive
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….80
Using Tor IM Browser Bundle………………………………………………………………………………………………..81
Set up your IM account in Pidgin…………………………………………………………………………………………….82
If this does not work………………………………………………………………………………………………………………82
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..82
Exit Tor IM Browser
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………83
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Table of Contents
Using Tor with Bridges
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….85
What is a bridge?…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..85
Where do I find bridges?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………85
Turn on bridging and enter bridge information…………………………………………………………………………86
About JonDo……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………88
Installation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………88
Configuration and Usage………………………………………………………………………………………………………..88
What are VPN and Tunneling?………………………………………………………………………………………………………..92
Tunneling……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..92
VPN…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….93
Advantages
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………94
Disadvantages and Risks
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………94
Using OpenVPN………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………95
Tips for setting up OpenVPN………………………………………………………………………………………………….95
Client……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..95
Server…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….95
.
Advantages and Risks…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….96
SSH Tunnelling……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….97
Linux/Unix and MacOS command-line (with OpenSSH)……………………………………………………………97
Windows graphical user interface (with PuTTY)……………………………………………………………………….98
Host key verification…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….100
Configuring applications to use the proxy……………………………………………………………………………….100
Using Socks Proxies……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….101
Configuring Your Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………..102
Mozilla Firefox………………………………………………………………………………………………………………102
Microsoft Internet Explorer……………………………………………………………………………………….104
Configuring a SOCKS proxy for other applications
………………………………………………………107
When you’re done with the proxy…………………………………………………………………………………….108
DNS leaks…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..108
Installing a Web Proxy…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..110
Installing PHProxy
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………111
Installing psiphon…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..113
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………115
Setting up a Tor Bridge………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….115
What do I need to run a relay or a bridge relay?
……………………………………………………………………….115
Downloading Tor…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………115
Installing Tor
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….116
Configuring Tor to be a bridge………………………………………………………………………………………………117
Sharing your bridge with friends …………………………………………………………………………………………..119
Risks of Operating a Proxy…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….120
Risks of operating a non-public proxy…………………………………………………………………………………….120
Risks of operating a Tor node (Tor relay)……………………………………………………………………………….120
Data retention laws might regulate proxy operation………………………………………………………………….121
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Table of Contents
Resources ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..122
Manuals and guides
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………122
Circumventing Internet censorship…………………………………………………………………………………..122
Computer security advice for activists………………………………………………………………………………122
Studies on Internet Censorship………………………………………………………………………………………..122
Organizations that work on documenting, fighting or circumventing Internet restrictions
……………..122
Open Web proxies and application proxies …………………………………………………………………………….123
Circumvention solutions and service operators………………………………………………………………………..123
A list of commercial VPN providers…………………………………………………………………………………123
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….124
Socksification softwares………………………………………………………………………………………………….124
Glossary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..125
aggregator…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..125
anonymity…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..125
anonymous remailer……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..125
ASP (application service provider)…………………………………………………………………………………………125
backbone…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….125
badware………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………125
bandwidth
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………125
bash (Bourne-again shell)……………………………………………………………………………………………………..126
BitTorrent…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..126
.
blacklist………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………126
block
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..126
bookmark……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………126
bridge…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………126
cache………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….126
censor…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………126
censorware………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….126
CGI (Common Gateway Interface)
…………………………………………………………………………………………127
chat…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….127
circumvention……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..127
Common Gateway Interface………………………………………………………………………………………………….127
command-line interface………………………………………………………………………………………………………..127
cookie…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………127
country code top-level domain (ccTLD)…………………………………………………………………………………127
.
DARPA (Defense Advanced Projects Research Agency)………………………………………………………….127
decryption…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..127
domain……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….128
DNS (Domain Name System)
………………………………………………………………………………………………..128
DNS leak…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….128
DNS server………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….128
DNS tunnel…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………128
eavesdropping……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..128
e-mail…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………129
encryption…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..129
exit node……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..129
file sharing………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….129
file spreading engine…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….129
filter……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………129
Firefox………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..129
forum………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….129
frame………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….130
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
………………………………………………………………………………………………….130
gateway………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………130
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Table of Contents
Glossary
honeypot…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….130
.
hop…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….130
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)………………………………………………………………………………………130
HTTPS (Secure HTTP)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………130
IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority)………………………………………………………………………..130
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers)…………………………………………….131
Instant Messaging (IM)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………131
intermediary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..131
Internet……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….131
IP (Internet Protocol) Address……………………………………………………………………………………………….131
IRC (Internet relay chat)……………………………………………………………………………………………………….131
ISP (Internet Service Provider)………………………………………………………………………………………………131
Javascript……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………131
.
keyword filter………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………131
log file………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..131
low-bandwidth filter…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….132
.
malware………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………132
man in the middle………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..132
middleman node…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..132
monitor……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….132
network address translation (NAT)
…………………………………………………………………………………………132
network operator………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….132
node……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………132
non-exit node………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………133
obfuscation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….133
packet…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………133
peer-to-peer…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………133
PHP……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………133
plain text…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….133
plaintext……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..133
privacy
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..133
POP3………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….134
port…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….134
protocol………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………134
proxy server………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..134
publicly routable IP address…………………………………………………………………………………………………..134
regular expression………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..134
remailer………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………134
router………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….135
root name server
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..135
RSS (Real Simple Syndication)……………………………………………………………………………………………..135
scheme
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….135
shell……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………135
SOCKS
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….135
script………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….135
.
spam…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..135
SSH (Secure Shell)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………136
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)………………………………………………………………………………………………….136
steganography……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..136
threat analysis
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………136
Top-Level Domain (TLD)…………………………………………………………………………………………………….136
TLS (Transport Layer Security)…………………………………………………………………………………………….136
.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol)………………………………………………..136
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Table of Contents
Glossary
Tor bridge
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………137
traffic analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..137
tunnel…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………137
UDP (User Datagram Packet)………………………………………………………………………………………………..137
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)………………………………………………………………………………………….137
Usenet………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..137
VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)……………………………………………………………………………………….137
VPN (virtual private network)……………………………………………………………………………………………….137
whitelist………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………138
World Wide Web (WWW)……………………………………………………………………………………………………138
Webmail……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..138
Web proxy
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..138
License…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..139
Authors
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….140
General Public License…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..148

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A #globalrevolution enthusiast. Twitter: @AliceKhatib
1 comment on this postSubmit yours
  1. I have seen two comments I wrote have been supressed. I don’t know why. Where can I see the rules for comments? Who is in charge of supressing comments?. Thanks for any answer.

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